Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology - Part Q - Arthropoda 3 Crustacea Ostracoda

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Portada Moore, Raymond C. Imagen del editor. Hard cover. Part Q in the Invertebrate Paleontology series. This definitive series of volumes is the most comprehensive and authoritative body of knowledge in existence on invertebrate fossil groups. For each fossil group, these volumes describe and illustrate: morphological features, with special reference to hard parts; ontogeny; classification; geologic distribution; evolutionary trends and phylogeny; and systematic descriptions.

There are a great many detailed illustrations and plates throughout the series. Rose's Books www. Myodocopids have transformed the second thoracic limb into a long multiarticulate vermiform appendage capable of extending into the dorsal space between the body and the hinge area of the valves, presumably as a cleaning device. In the most recently evolved podocopids, these trunk limbs look like typical crustacean walking legs and have often been termed pereopods. According to recent research, there are several limbless trunk segments following the two pairs of thoracopods, and the body typically ends in a pair of caudal rami.

In most ostracods, the penes of the male are quite large relative to the remainder of the body. In higher podocopids, the penial lobes can be as much as one-third of the body length and are very complicated, highly chitinous structures. Ostracods are found in nearly all marine and freshwater environments, as well as some moist terrestrial habitats.

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  • Most ostracod species are benthic, or epibenthic, living on the substrate or on other organisms. One group, the myodocopids, has developed exclusively pelagic species, which can be found throughout the oceanic waters of the world. When benthic ostracods walk, they open the carapace valves, push out the walking legs and antennae, and amble across the substrate with a rocking motion. Swimming in pelagic species involves pushing the terminal section of the antennae out the antennal notches in the carapace and moving the limbs in a rowing motion.

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    Shallow-water ostracods seem to spend most of the day in motion, probably foraging for food particles. The few observations done at night indicate that they usually do not move about at night. Ostrocods were long thought to be filter feeders, but recent evidence shows that they are quite capable of grazing on diatoms and other fractions of marine detritus.

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    • Most ostracods are apparently detritus feeders, with a few being capable of scavenging or predation. Ostracods mate by putting the opened ventral side of the valves together, or the male may mount the female dorsally from behind and insert the large penes into the open valves of the female.

      Eggs may be laid freely in the environment or, as in some podocopids, are incubated inside the valves, usually above the abdomen. The first larval stage that hatches is a nauplius, with the carapace fold covering the body and appendages.

      Arthropoda / by H. J. Harrington [et al.]. - Version details - Trove

      At this stage, the animal can walk or swim by means of the antennae and mandibles. At each successive molt, new legs or leg primordia are usually added. Adult stages are reached in 5—8 molts, depending on order and family. Lifespan is usually a year or less, but little is known about this for deep-sea-dwelling species. Most ostracod species occur in sufficient numbers and are not threatened, and none are listed by the IUCN.

      A few, however, such as the entocytherids, are symbionts of freshwater crayfish and isopods, and so may become rare as their hosts disappear. The fossilized valves of ostracods have long been used by paleontologists as indicators of past habitat and climate conditions. Because no species of ostracod extends over a long geological time period, they are useful indicators of ages of deposits.

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      Typical myodocopid, with rounded, smooth, unpigmented, bivalved carapace marked anteriorly with a rostrum and large antennal notch. Pair of black lateral eyes are visible through the carapace.

      Caudal furca is extremely large and visible extending through the ventral valve opening. Stays in sediment in daytime and is most active at night, either hopping across the substratum or swimming in lower part of water column. Swimming and digging in the sediment are accomplished by synchronous strokes of the antennae. In probable escape response to predators, it used its rather large furca to push itself into sand.

      Escape from sand was also accomplished.

      Pdf Treatise On Invertebrate Paleontology Part Q Arthropoda 3 Crustacea Ostracoda 1961

      In general, it burrowed only a few millimeters into the sediment. In laboratory, it has been observed to attack living prey such as polychaete annelids, to scavenge on fish carcasses, or to eat artificial aquarium foods.

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      The mandibular palps are used primarily to hold the food while it uses its fourth limbs maxillules , caudal furcae to open the integument or body wall. Endites transfer food items to opening of the esophagus. Observations are few, but it appears to spend 30—60 minutes off the bottom in a precopulatory mode with the male grasping the female. Mating occurs on the bottom with the pair lying in reverse ventral position.

      Male transfers spermatophore to female. Eggs are brooded under carapace of female. After hatching, there are five instars leading to the adult. Youngest juveniles were able to crawl, swim, and dig into the bottom sediment. Valves are conspicuously pigmented with vertical brown streaks on either side of the muscles' scars. Specific distribution unknown; no map available. Brackish water pools along the coast as well as inland saline waters. Tolerance experiments showed that they tolerate 10 parts per thousand salinity the best, especially at lower temperatures. In the field, tolerance to wide ranges of salinity have been seen.

      Active only during the day.

      At low light levels, they creep towards deeper parts of the pools in which they are found. They walk about the pool constantly with no resting period observed during daylight hours. Thirty to 40 red to orange oval eggs are generally attached to the substratum or to thalli of green algae. Three generations are produced during the summer in the Swedish Baltic, with the third generation being an over-wintering generation.

      The eggs of the third generation are always laid in the bottom sediments so as to be protected from the winter ice. Benson, R. Hartmann, G.